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Molecular medicine also called precision or personalized medicine is a scientific approach based on molecular analyses that drive methods for early diagnosis, and guidance for targeted therapies. The SOCRATE 2.0 program aims at identifying targets and validating the molecular-driven therapeutic strategies. The long-term vision is to propose an extensive molecular analysis to each patient with difficult-to-treat cancer in order to propose a personalized therapy. These new operational rules in cancer medicine require specific social science projects applied to personalized medicine. Hence, it includes a health and social sciences focus, including evaluation of “equality of access to innovative targeted therapies”. Indeed, new generation clinical trials are now based on complex multidimensional information and require specific equipment and staff to interpret genomic sequences. In contrary to classical cohort studies, these biology-driven trials challenge our traditional view of patient management in hospital structures and need to be studied from a sociologic point of view.